Inflammations in the dental practice, their special forms, differential diagnoses and complications are the topics of the third part of the lecture by Dr. Markus Tröltzsch. Almost daily, dentists are consulted by patients, who suffer from diffuse, not locatable pain and possibly a swelling in the jaw area or facial region. Not always the cause is of odontogenic nature. If no dental origin of the inflammation can be identified, an inflammatory process within adjacent anatomical structures must be taken into consideration. It may evoke a similar symptom complex. In this context, sialadenitis (especially parotitis) and sinusitis (especially maxillary sinusitis) need to be considered, which may also cause throbbing pain in the upper jaw as well as positive reactions to percussion testing. Moreover, viral infections such as herpes infections, osteonecrosis (bisphosphonate- or drug-induced, MRONJ) as well as periodontitis or peri-implantitis must be taken into account as potential causes of pain in the orofacial region.