Zygoma implants were first described by Per-Ingvar Branemark and were so far predestined for the prosthetic rehabilition of patients after resection of the maxilla due to aggressive growth of carcinomas of the oral and nasal mucosa. In this presentation, Professor Malevez explains the indication spectrum of Zygoma implants besides the functional and aesthetic rehabilitation of tumour patients. The os zygomaticum (cheekbone) consists of trabecular bone, closely resembles the mandible in terms of bone quality, and serves Zygoma implants as anchoring tissue.
Local bone atrophy commences as soon as extractions are performed in the maxilla. This atrophy is chronic and can lead to a complete loss of local bone level in case of edentulous patients. The placement of implants and the restoration of the patient with a full prosthesis may prove difficult if not impossible under such conditions. In such cases, Zygoma implants offer the option of restoring aesthetics and masticulatory function. This can avoid extensive bone grafts and sinus elevation surgery. With sufficient primary stability preceding osseointegration, Zygoma implants allow immediate loading and thus sufficient restoration of the patient immediately after implant placement.
Zygoma implants are presently available in eight lengths (30.0 mm - 52.5 mm) and diameters of 3.9 or 4.6 mm. The possible position for insertion is limited by the lateral maxillary incisor up to the height of the first molar. Whereas a more palatinal positioning of the implants was selected in the past, nowadays a paracrestal position is preferred. The classical indications for Zygoma implants are a maxilla less than 10 mm high and 4 mm wide, unsuccessful bone grafts and the failure of all other rehabilitation efforts.